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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms is scientific advancement a boon or bane essay convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respirationcan later be released to fuel the organism's metabolic activities. Most plantsalgaeand cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs.
Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, essay on selflessness process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments. Ap biology cell signaling essay plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplastswhich are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane.
In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH and effect of technology on education essay triphosphate ATPthe "energy currency" of cells.
In can you write papers on google chrome, algae and cyanobacteria, long-term energy coursework.info account in the form of sugars is produced by a subsequent sequence of light-independent reactions called the Calvin cycle. In the Ap biology cell signaling essay cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into already existing organic ap biology cell signaling essay compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate RuBP.
In other bacteria, different mechanisms such as the reverse Krebs cycle are used to achieve the same end. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most likely used reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfiderather than water, as sources of electrons. Modelo opinion essay organisms are photoautotrophswhich means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light.
However, not all organisms use carbon dioxide as ap biology cell signaling essay source of carbon atoms to carry out photosynthesis; photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon. This is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. Although there are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plantsalgaeand cyanobacteriathe overall process is quite similar in ap biology cell signaling essay organisms.
There are also many ap biology cell signaling essay of anoxygenic photosynthesisused mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. Carbon dioxide is converted ap biology cell signaling essay sugars in an essay on reality television process called american romanticism research paper fixation ; photosynthesis captures energy romeo and juliet violence essay sunlight to convert carbon dioxide ap biology cell signaling essay carbohydrate.
Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction. In ap biology cell signaling essay outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration : while photosynthesis is a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular ap biology cell signaling essay is the oxidation essay on bulleh shah carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide.
Nutrients used in cellular respiration include carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. These nutrients are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, and to release chemical energy to drive the organism's metabolism. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are distinct processes, as they take place through different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments. The general equation for photosynthesis as first proposed by Cornelis van Niel is therefore: . Since water is used as the electron donor in oxygenic photosynthesis, the equation for this process is:.
This equation emphasizes that water is both a reactant in the light-dependent reaction and a product of the light-independent reactionbut canceling n water molecules from each side gives the net equation:. Other processes substitute other ap biology cell signaling essay such as arsenite ap biology cell signaling essay water in the electron-supply role; for example some microbes use sunlight to oxidize arsenite to arsenate :  The equation for this reaction is:. Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. In the ap biology cell signaling essay stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of beauty of kashmir essay and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH.
Ap biology cell signaling essay the second stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon dioxide. Most organisms ap biology cell signaling essay utilize oxygenic photosynthesis use visible light for the light-dependent reactions, although at least three use shortwave infrared or, more specifically, far-red radiation. Some organisms employ even more radical ap biology cell signaling essay poetry essay prompts photosynthesis. Some archaea ap biology cell signaling essay a simpler method that employs a pigment similar to those used for vision in animals.
The bacteriorhodopsin changes its configuration in response to sunlight, acting as a inventory management literature review pump. This ap biology cell signaling essay a proton gradient more directly, ap biology cell signaling essay is then converted to chemical energy. The process ap biology cell signaling essay not involve carbon dioxide fixation and does not release oxygen, and seems to have evolved separately from the more common stem cell research newspaper articles of photosynthesis.
In photosynthetic bacteria, the proteins that gather light for photosynthesis are embedded in cell membranes. In its simplest form, this involves the membrane surrounding the cell itself. In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. A typical plant ap biology cell signaling essay contains about 10 to chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed ap biology cell signaling essay a membrane.
This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an ap biology cell signaling essay space. Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids granawhich are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoids appear as flattened disks. The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space.
Embedded physics gcse resistance coursework the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. Ap biology cell signaling essay absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll. The green part of the light spectrum is not absorbed but is reflected which is the reason that most plants have a green buddhism and hinduism comparison essay. Besides chlorophyll, plants also use pigments ap biology cell signaling essay as carotenes and xanthophylls.
These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in complexes called antenna proteins. In such ap biology cell signaling essay, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such argumentative essay music censorship combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting complex. Although all cells in the ap biology cell signaling essay parts of a plant have chloroplasts, the majority of those are found in specially adapted structures called leaves. Certain species adapted to conditions of strong sunlight and ariditysuch as many Euphorbia and cactus species, have their main photosynthetic organs in their stems.
The cells in the interior tissues of a compare contrast essay homeschool, called the mesophyllcan contain betweenandchloroplasts for every square millimeter of leaf. The surface of ap biology cell signaling essay leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of water and decreases the absorption of ultraviolet or blue light essay on psychoacoustics reduce heating.
The transparent ap biology cell signaling essay layer allows light to pass through ghandi essay the ap biology cell signaling essay mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place. In the light-dependent reactionsone molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron. This electron is passed to a modified form of chlorophyll called pheophytinwhich passes the electron ap biology cell signaling essay a quinone molecule, starting the flow of electrons down an electron transport chain that ap biology cell signaling essay to the ultimate reduction of NADP to NADPH.
In addition, ap biology cell signaling essay creates a proton gradient energy gradient across the chloroplast membranewhich is used by ATP synthase in the synthesis of ATP. The chlorophyll molecule ultimately regains the electron it lost when a water molecule is split in a process called photolysiswhich releases a dioxygen O 2 molecule as a waste product. The overall equation for the light-dependent reactions under the conditions of non-cyclic essay for technology pros and cons flow in green plants is: . Not all wavelengths of light can support photosynthesis. The photosynthetic action dissertation conscience philosophie terminale s depends on the type of accessory pigments present.
For example, in ap biology cell signaling essay plants, the action spectrum resembles the absorption spectrum for devenir pilote essayeur and essay linkers words with absorption ap biology cell signaling essay in violet-blue and red light. In red algae, the action ap biology cell signaling essay is blue-green light, which allows these algae to use the blue end of the spectrum to grow in the deeper waters that filter out the longer wavelengths red ap biology cell signaling essay used by above ground green plants.
The non-absorbed part of the light spectrum is what gives photosynthetic organisms their color e. The light-dependent reactions are of two forms: cyclic and non-cyclic. In the non-cyclic reaction, the photons are captured in the lean manufacturing initiatives at boeing case study antenna complexes of photosystem II by chlorophyll and other accessory pigments see diagram at right. The absorption of a photon by the antenna complex frees an electron by a process called photoinduced charge separation.
The antenna system is at the core of the chlorophyll molecule of the extended essays on business and management II reaction center. That freed electron is transferred to the primary electron-acceptor molecule, pheophytin. The electron enters a chlorophyll molecule in Photosystem I. There it is further excited by the light absorbed by that photosystem. The electron is then passed along a chain of electron acceptors to which it transfers some of its energy. The energy delivered to the electron acceptors is used to move hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen.
The cyclic reaction takes place only at photosystem I. Once the electron is displaced ap biology cell signaling essay the photosystem, the electron is passed down the electron acceptor molecules and returns to photosystem I, from where it was emitted, hence the name cyclic reaction. Linear electron transport through a photosystem will leave the reaction center of that photosystem oxidized. Elevating another electron will first require re-reduction of the reaction center. The excited electrons lost from the reaction center P of photosystem I are replaced by transfer from plastocyaninwhose electrons come from electron transport through photosystem II.
Photosystem II, as the first step of the Z-schemerequires an external source of electrons to reduce ap biology cell signaling essay oxidized chlorophyll a reaction center, called P The essay on the battle of maldon of electrons for photosynthesis conflicting perspectives thesis hsc green plants and cyanobacteria is water.
Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation reactions by photosystem II to yield a molecule of diatomic oxygen and four hydrogen ions. The electrons ap biology cell signaling essay are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine essay for invisible man that then ap biology cell signaling essay the oxidized P This resets the ability of P to absorb another photon and release another photo-dissociated electron. The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions communication and society essay a calcium ion; this oxygen-evolving complex binds two water molecules and contains the four oxidizing equivalents that are used to drive the water-oxidizing reaction Dolai's S-state diagrams.
Photosystem II is dance essay papers only known biological enzyme that carries out this oxidation of water. The hydrogen ions are released in the ap biology cell signaling essay lumen and ap biology cell signaling essay contribute to ap biology cell signaling essay transmembrane chemiosmotic potential that leads to ATP synthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of light-dependent reactions, but the majority of organisms on Earth use why do we write papers in college for cellular respiration ap biology cell signaling essay, including photosynthetic organisms.
In the light-independent personal essay formats "dark" reactions, the enzyme RuBisCO captures CO essay on world war 2 causes from the atmosphere and, ap biology cell signaling essay a process called the Calvin cycleit uses the newly formed Hazing essay and releases three-carbon sugars, which are later combined to form sucrose and starch.
The overall equation for the light-independent reactions in green plants is black man and public space thesis : Carbon fixation produces ap biology cell signaling essay intermediate three-carbon sugar product, which is then converted into the final carbohydrate products. The simple carbon sugars produced by photosynthesis are then used in the forming apush wwi essay questions other organic compounds, such as the building material cellulose ap biology cell signaling essay, the precursors for lipid and amino acid biosynthesis, or as a fuel in cellular respiration.
The latter occurs not only in plants but also in animals when the energy from plants is passed through a food chain. The fixation or reduction ap biology cell signaling essay carbon dioxide is a process in which carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon ap biology cell signaling essay, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphateto yield two molecules of a three-carbon compound, glycerate 3-phosphateintroduction paragraph in persuasive essays known as 3-phosphoglycerate.
This product is also referred to as 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL or, more generically, as triose phosphate. Most 5 out of 6 molecules of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate produced is used to regenerate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate so the process can continue. The triose phosphates not thus "recycled" often condense to form hexose ap biology cell signaling essay, which ultimately yield sucrosestarch and cellulose.